What effect will the battery have after a long time of use?

What is the impact of lithium battery after long-term storage? The main factors affecting the service life of lithium battery include: charge and discharge mode, cut-off voltage, charge and discharge rate, service temperature and shelving conditions. Generally, after a long period of shelving, the performance of lithium battery will decline, which generally shows the increase of internal resistance, the decrease of voltage and the decrease of discharge capacity.



What is the impact of lithium battery after long-term storage?

Under the condition of storage and not using, self-discharge, passivation of positive and negative materials and electrolyte decomposition will occur due to the nature of the battery. The unstable performance of the negative SEI will lead to the rapid decline of the negative electrode material and the precipitation of lithium metal. Different electrolyte components also have different effects on the decline of the electrode material. Therefore, it is particularly important for lithium battery to have good long-term storage performance.

Lithium ion battery is a complex electrochemical system. After being stored for a long time, the internal equilibrium state changes gradually. When this happens to a certain extent, the following changes often occur in lithium ion battery:


1.  Physical properties

According to the actual proof, the physical characteristics (appearance, size, weight, etc.) of the battery will change. This trend is more obvious when the temperature and humidity of storage environment are not ideal.

High humidity is more damaging than low humidity. For example, the steel shell of the battery is easy to rust under high humidity. Rust will not affect the internal state of the battery, but will directly affect the delivery of products and may have a negative impact on its supporting electronic components.


2.  Electrochemical characteristics

2.1 Capacity

There are two main changes in the capacity of long-term used lithium batteries: one is the decrease of battery capacity which is mainly caused by self-discharge. The second is the increase of irreversible capacity, which mainly depends on the irreversible consumption reaction between internal chemical systems. Self-discharge is inevitable in all lithium-ion batteries.

2.2    Internal Resistance

For lithium batteries, the resistance tends to increase with the increase as storage time increases. If the resistance exceeds a certain value, the battery will be scrapped or degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the resistance change during long-term storage.

2.3    Discharge Characteristics

The discharge characteristics of lithium-ion battery decreases after long-term storage. The low temperature performance of long-term storage battery is obviously decreased.



How to store lithium battery for a long time?

1)    The service life of lithium battery is affected by working temperature and humidity. High temperature and high humidity should be avoided. It is suggested that rechargeable battery should be stored in dry natural environment from 0 to 20 .

2)    The lithium battery should be charged with 50% ~ 80% of the power when it is not being used for a long time. It should be taken out of the instrument and stored in a dry and cool environment. The battery should be charged every three months to avoid self-discharge, resulting in irreversible capacity loss.

3)    If the lithium battery gives off a peculiar smell, heat, discoloration, deformation or any abnormality occurs during use, storage and charging, the battery should be removed from the device or charger and stopped immediately.



Storage requirements of LiFePO4 battery

1)    Lithium iron phosphate battery can be stored on the a shelf according to the technical requirements of the product, which is conducive to cost control and storage space utilization.

2)    The storage of LiFePO4 battery should avoid the deformation caused by stacking and extrusion, or damage to the battery leading to liquid leakage.

3)  Lithium iron phosphate battery should be kept away from direct sunlight or rain. If the battery is drenched, the insulation resistance will be reduced and self-discharge and chlorination may occur. High temperature will also damage the normal function of the battery.

4)    Use packaging that meets the requirements of safe storage or transportation, such as wooden cases, corrugated boxes, or PVG boxes, to ensure the safe storage of goods to a large extent.

5)    Formulate a variety of emergency plans for lithium iron phosphate battery accidents, and carry out routine drills if conditions permit.

In order to make full use of the energy efficiency of lithium batteries, in the process of daily use and storage, we should pay attention to the maintenance of lithium batteries and the knowledge of how to store lithium batteries for a long time.


(From magazine UPS Application)



About AVIC-Tech

AVIC-Tech (Xiamen)Electric Power Technology Co.,Ltd is a high-tech enterprise specializing in R&D, manufacture, sales and service of high-end power supply. Our flagship products are industrial UPS (1kVA-800kVA), dynamic voltage restorer (10kVA-3150kVA), and lithium battery system, which are widely used in nuclear power, electric power, petroleum and petrochemical, rail transportation, industrial manufacturing and other fields.

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